Once the water or moisture penetrates into the stone or brick it causes the natural salts to form. The salt crystals expand and cause the brick or stone to spall and cannot be stopped until you prevent the water or moisture from penetrating into the substrate.
Your brick, stone and mortar will have tiny fissures or cracks where water or moisture can penetrate. The cracks may be the result of the composition of the stone or the way that the stone is formed in the earth.
In the case of brick they can be caused by surface erosion, the expansion of the mortar joint and the way that the brick was originally made. One thing you can count on is that sooner or later water will penetrate your brick and stone one way or the other.
Once moisture penetrates the stone or brick it can form salts and or freeze. If it freezes it can expand inside the crack and cause the crack to expand.
The work Kapton Caulking perform ranges from preventive, waterproofing and masonry repairs to historical restoration and preservation.